Contributor. Emily Abruzzo, AIA, LEED AP is partner in ABRUZZO BODZIAK ARCHITECTS, recipients of the 2010 Architectural League Prize, AIA New Practices New York 2012, and selected for the New York City Department of Design + Construction Excellence Program. She is a Fellow of The Forum and Institute for Urban Design, and a MacDowell Fellow. Emily earned a Bachelor of Arts at Columbia College and a Master of Architecture at Princeton University, where she received a Certificate in Media and Modernity and was a Fellow at The Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies. Emily is a founding editor of 306090 Books, and currently teaches at the Yale School of Architecture. Article: Winner Winner.

Contributor. Emanuel Admassu is an architect based in New York City. Born in Addis Ababa, he moved to the United States at the age of fourteen. Admassu graduated with a master of science in Advanced Architectural Design (Honors) from Columbia University (GSAPP ’12), where he was awarded the Lucille Smyser Lowenfish Memorial Prize. He currently works as an adjunct assistant professor at Columbia University and a senior designer at MdeAS Architects. Emanuel is the co-founder and principal of MI, a design collaborative engaged in consuming, critiquing and producing spatial translations of contemporary culture. Admassu’s current research focuses on the constructed identities of urban markets in Africa. Article: Menged Merkato.

Contributor. AFJD is a transdisciplinary design firm based in Vancouver positioned at the intersection of architecture and information design. Article: They Grow Without Us.

Contributor. The Architecture Lobby, Inc. is an organization of architectural workers advocating for the value of architecture in the general public and for architectural work within the discipline. It believes that the work architects do—aesthetic, technical, social, organizational, environmental, administrative, fiduciary—needs structural change to be more rewarding and more socially relevant. As long as architecture tolerates abusive practices in the office and the construction site, it cannot insist on its role in and for the public good. Article: Follow The Money.

Contributor. Jon Ardern is an artist, designer and co-founder of Superflux, a critically acclaimed design studio working in the realm of emerging technologies for business, cultural, and social purposes. His work has been exhibited at the MoMA New York, V&A, Science Gallery amongst others, and has won awards from UNESCO and New York’s Social Design Network. Article: Owning the Sky.

Contributor. Rachel Armstrong is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Architecture & Landscape, University of Greenwich. She is also a 2010 Senior TED Fellow who is establishing an alternative approach to sustainability that couples with the computational properties of the natural world to develop a 21st century production platform for the built environment, which she calls “living” architecture. Article: Informed Speculation.

Contributor. Daniel A. Barber is an Assistant Professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he teaches the history of modern architecture. His research explores relationships between design fields and the emergence of global environmental culture during the 20th century. Articles have recently been published in Grey Room and Technology and Culture. Article: Thermoheliodon: Climatic architecture at the end of calculation.

Contributor. Neeraj Bhatia is an assistant professor at the California College of Art (CCA), where he co-directs The Urban Works Agency and is principal of the design practice The Open Workshop. Article: Subjects of Performance.

Contributor. Skylar Bisom-Rapp is a senior strategist at Practice for Architecture and Urbanism where he works on urban projects ranging from district plans to targeted architectural interventions. Skylar is also an adjunct associate at Columbia University’s Graduate School for Architecture, Planning and Preservation where he teaches a class on theories of city form and an interdisciplinary workshop on urban development with PAU founder Vishaan Chakrabarti. Article: Unpacking Ownership.

Contributor. Lluís Alexandre Casanovas Blanco is an architect and curator based in New York and Barcelona. He is currently pursuing a PhD in the history and theory of architecture at Princeton University. Together with the After Belonging Agency, Casanovas is the chief curator of the Oslo Architecture Triennale 2016. Article: Domestic Homelessness.

Contributor. Gerald Bodziak, AIA, LEED AP is partner in ABRUZZO BODZIAK ARCHITECTS, recipients of the 2010 Architectural League Prize, AIA New Practices New York 2012, and selected for the New York City Department of Design + Construction Excellence Program. He received his Bachelor of Science from the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning and his Master of Architecture from Princeton University. He is a Fellow of The Forum and Institute for Urban Design, and has taught drawing and construction at Parsons The New School for Design. Article: Winner Winner.

Contributor. Travis Bost combines his research and design work as lead investigator and registered architect at OJT in New Orleans and as a PhD Candidate in Planning and Geography at the University of Toronto where his work centers on the politics of environmental planning, nature ideology, and critical whiteness studies. Article: Jumpstart Starter Homes

Contributor. Cory Brugger directs the development and implementation of advanced design technology for Morphosis Architects. At Morphosis, Brugger’s primary focus has been on the integration of parametric design tools and virtual building models into design and delivery processes. He holds a Bachelor of Architecture from Philadelphia University and a Master of Engineering from the Product-Architecture Lab at Stevens Institute of Technology. Article: Design Forward, Reverse Engineer.

Contributor. Lori Brown’s creative practice examines the relationships between architecture and social justice. She is the author of Contested Spaces: Abortion Clinics, Women’s Shelters and Hospitals and the editor of Feminist Practices: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Women in Architecture. She is the co-founder and leader of ArchiteXX, a women and architecture group working to bridge the academy and practice in New York City. www.architexx.org, www.labpractices.net. Article: Private Choices, Public Spaces.

Contributor. Travis Jared Marmarellis Bunt is the principal of WORKSHOPOLIS, a consultancy specializing in the urban development of emerging economies. In 2014, he was recognized by Perspective Magazine with a 40-under-40 award as a “rising star” in the architecture and design industries, in part for his work establishing and leading the Hong Kong office of URBANUS and his role in curating the Hong Kong edition of the 2013–14 Bi-City Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism. He is an adjunct assistant professor for the real estate development program at GSAPP and the author of A Life Away: Letters from Afghanistan, which reflects on the U.S. military’s role as nation-builder to the world. Article: Organic Algorithm, Organic Ur

Contributor. John Buonocore is a designer, carpenter, and prospective architect. As an undergraduate architecture student at Columbia College, Buonocore became interested in the ways architecture can be used as a tool for public advocacy. After graduation, he was awarded the Percival and Naomi Goodman Fellowship to research homeless populations in Chandigarh, India, and exhibited “Pulling People: Chandigarh’s Working Homeless” at The Tunnel Gallery, Barnard College. Article: Rarely Seen Sleeping.

Contributor. Jordan Carver is a writer, researcher, and educator in New York City where he is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Architecture at Columbia GSAPP and the Managing Editor at GSAPP Books. His research practice is concerned with the spaces created where law, economics, and political rhetoric intersect. Article: Delaware Über Alles.

Contributor.Benedict Clouette is an architectural researcher and writer living in New York. He received a Master of Architecture from Columbia University, where he was awarded the William Kinne Prize and the Alpha Rho Chi Medal. With Marlisa Wise, he was awarded the Architectural League’s Deborah Norden Grant for his research on architecture and international aid. His writings have appeared in journals including Domus, Volume, and San Rocco. Article: Counter Intuition.

Contributor. McLain Clutter is an architect, author and Associate Professor at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning. His design and research practice, Master of None, focuses on the role of architecture within the multidisciplinary milieu of contemporary urbanism. Clutter’s book, Imaginary Apparatus: New York City and Its Mediated Representation, was published by Park Books in 2015. www.mclainclutter.com. Article: Hacking Geodemography.

Contributor. Archie Lee Coates IV is a partner at PlayLab, Inc., an extremely multi-disciplinary New York art practice founded in 2009, faculty at School of Visual Arts’ Design for Social Innovation, and executive director of + POOL, a water-filtering floating pool in New York for everybody. Article: Please Own a Piece of It.

Contributor. Common Room is an architectural practice with a publishing imprint, and an exhibition space. It is collaborative platform based in New York City and Brussels. common room is comprised of architects Lars Fischer, Maria Ibañez and Todd Rouhe; Rachel Himmelfarb; and graphic designer Geoff Han (common-room.net). Article: Contingent Objectives.

Contributor. Raul Corrêa-Smith is a Carioca who was born in New York. An Adjunct Assistant Professor of Architecture at GSAPP, Coordinator of Studio-X Rio, Studio Critic of Architecture and Urbanism at PUC-Rio and co-founder of Faíscas (www.faiscas.org), Raul currently lives in Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro. Article: Sangue Bom.

Contributor. Patrick Craine is the director of Practice, an architectural office. He currently teaches advanced studios with Andrés Jaque at the Columbia University GSAPP. His work has been recognized with numerous awards and publications, the most recent being the winning project for the MoMA PS1 Young Architects Program in partnership with Andrés Jaque/Office for Political Innovation. Articles: An Interview on Interviews and A Catalog of Devices.

Contributor. Esteban de Backer received degrees in architecture and environmental sciences from the School of Architecture in Barcelona and UGR, Spain. He worked at No.mad Architects as a Arquia Foundation fellow. As a recipient of the La Caixa Foundation fellowship, de Backer also earned a Master of Science in Architecture at Columbia GSAPP, where he completed the ARPA initiative. He currently works as an architect in New York City and serves as an adjunct faculty at the GSAPP. Articles: Forensic Methodology, Another Efficiency, Efficiency as Design, Efficiency as Integration, Efficiency as Behavior, Efficiency as Productivity, Efficiency as Necessity.

Contributor.Leigha Dennis is a designer and researcher in New York City, where she investigates the convergence of architecture and digital culture. She is a faculty member at Columbia University GSAPP, where she co-directs the Architecture Online Lab and was formerly the Cloud Communications Officer and a member of the Network Architecture Lab. She was recently the 2013-14 Muschenheim Fellow at the University of Michigan’s Taubman College. Article: Clouds.

Contributor. Joseph Dahmen is a designer whose research explores emergent materials in hybrid ecologies. He is Assistant Professor at the University of British Columbia and a 2017 Wall Scholar at the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies. He is co-founder of Watershed Materials, a sustainable architectural materials company funded by the National Science Foundation. He holds a Master of Architecture from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he studied with Yung Ho Chang and John Ochsendorf. Article: They Grow Without Us.

Contributor. Arindam Dutta is Associate Professor of Architectural History and Theory at the Department of Architecture, MIT. He directs the History, Theory, Criticism Program in Architecture and Art, and the Master of Science in Architecture Studies (SMArchS) program at MIT. He is the author of The Bureaucracy of Beauty: Design in the Age of its Global Reproducibility (2007), and the editor of A Second Modernism: MIT, Architecture, and the “Techno-Social” Moment (2013). Article: Task Environment.

Contributor. Behnaz Farahi is an architect and interaction designer, exploring the potential of interactive environments and their relationship to the human body. In particular she is interested in the implementation of emerging technologies in contemporary art/architecture practice. Her goal is to enhance the relationship between human beings and the built environment by implementing design/motion principles inspired by natural systems. Application areas include architecture, fashion and interaction design. She also specializes in additive manufacturing and robotic technologies.​ ​Currently she is an Annenberg Fellow and PhD candidate in Interdisciplinary Media Arts and Practice at USC School of Cinematic Arts. www.behnazfarahi.com. Article: Second Skin.

Contributor. Mustafa Faruki is the founder of the Lab-lab for architecture, a Brooklyn-based design practice dedicated to completely re-inventing the potential outputs of architectural design. Article: Proof of Life.

Contributor. Mateo Fernández-Muro, architect and March II from ETSAM-UPM in Madrid, is now a PhD candidate specialized in Landscape Architecture and Urbanism. His research is focused on recovering the political condition of the city by studying the relation between fiction and conflict in the post-democratic urban space. He is now co-editor of displacements: an x’scape journal and coordinates the MArchII program MPAA at ETSAM. Article: The Minstrel’s Lab.

Contributors. Ryan John King and Ekaterina Zavyalova are entrepreneurs and founding members of FOAM a decentralized architecture office (ĐAO) working to apply blockchain technology to the production of the built environment. http://foam.space/. Article: Value Slips Away.

Contributor. Formlessfinder was created by Garrett Ricciardi and Julian Rose and exists as the nexus of their ongoing collaboration. The studio received the 2012 AIA NY New Practices award, a 2012 National Endowment for the Arts grant, and was selected as a finalist for the MOMA/PS1 Young Architects Program in 2011. Their design work, ranging from residential additions to public pavilions, has been exhibited at institutions such as The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the MAXXI in Rome, The Storefront for Art and Architecture, Design Miami, and featured in publications including Architecture RecordDomus, SurfaceMetropolis, and W Magazine.  Formlessfinder recently published the book Formless Manifesto with Lars Muller and Storefront for Art and Architecture. Article: Engine Trouble.

Contributor. Wendy W Fok, trained as an architect, is the creative director/founder WE-DESIGNS, LLC (Architecture/Creative Strategy) and Resilient Modular Systems, PBC (Socially Missioned Venture). Fok is completing her Doctor of Design research at the Harvard GSD and Harvard Law School respectively, has a Master of Architecture and Certification of Urban Policy/Planning from Princeton University, and a Bachelor of Arts in Architecture with a Concentration in Economics (Statistics) from Barnard College, Columbia University. Article: Property in the Digital Age of Architecture.

Contributor. Michelle Fornabai is a conceptual artist who uses architecture as a medium—exploring “malpractices,” translated literally from the German kunstfehler as “art mistakes,” in conjunction with “standards of practice,” de lege artis in Latin, “according to the rules of the art.” Trained as an architect, she received her Masters of Architecture from Princeton University. Article: The Art of the Slump.

Contributor. Gabriel Fries-Briggs teaches at UCLA Architecture and Urban Design. He has written about architecture for the journals PidginNova Organa and Spacer and contributed to the book Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design. Article: Choreographing Contingency.

Contributor. Amber Frid-Jimenez is an artist who explores the role of design and technology in contemporary society. She is Canada Research Chair and an associate professor at Emily Carr University, Vancouver, where she directs the Studio of Extensive Aesthetics. She has shown work at venues including the Casco Office for Art, Design and Theory, Jan van Eyck Academie, and the Vancouver Art Gallery in Vancouver. She holds a Masters in Media Arts and Sciences from the MIT Media Lab. Article: They Grow Without Us.

Contributor. Curt Gambetta is an architectural designer and PhD student in the School of Architecture at Princeton University. He was formerly the Peter Reyner Banham Fellow at the Buffalo School of Architecture and Planning in New York and a teaching fellow at the Woodbury University School of Architecture in Los Angeles. Article: Inside Infrastructure.

Contributor. Jordan Geiger is an architect and educator. His research, writing, and design work cross architecture and human computer interaction at large shifts in scale and engaging social, legal, and ecological forces on the built environment. At the University at Buffalo, he is Assistant Professor of Architecture and a member of the Center for Architecture and Situated Technologies (CAST). Article: Niagora.

Contributor. Tanya Gershon is an architectural designer and curator based in New York. In 2014, Gershon designed the opening exhibition for Studio-X Johannesburg, titled “Taking It to the Street, The Art of Public Life,” exploring the intersection between public space and the labyrinthine permitting process street performers undergo to work in Johannesburg. Her practice attempts to instigate change in perceptions toward street artists while advocating to streamline the permitting process required to perform in public space. In 2015 Gershon founded SASAI (South African Street Artists Initiative). Article: To the Street.

Contributor. Gökçe Günel holds the position of ACLS New Faculty Fellow in Anthropology at Columbia University. Her current book manuscript, titled “Spaceship in the Desert: Energy, Climate Change and Green Business in Abu Dhabi,” focuses on the construction of renewable energy and clean technology infrastructures in the UAE, more specifically concentrating on Masdar City. Article: Masdar City’s Hidden Brain.

Contributor. Orit Halpern is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology and a Strategic Hire  in Interactive Design and Theory at Concordia University, Montréal. Her work bridges the histories of science, computing, and cybernetics with design and art practice. Her most recent book Beautiful Data: A History of Vision and Reason since 1945 (Duke Press 2015) is a genealogy of interactivity and our contemporary obsessions with “big” data and data visualization. Currently, she is working on a history and theory of “smartness”. She has also published and created works for a variety of venues including The Journal of Visual Culture, Public Culture, Configurations, C-theory, and ZKM in Karlsruhe, Germany. www.orithalpern.net Articles: Forensic Methodology and Smartness as Instrument.

Contributor. Jochen Hartmann is a hybrid designer/software engineer working at the Spatial Information Design Lab, a research unit of Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, where he is currently designing a large scale permanent installation for the Jerome L Greene Science Center in Manhattan. His background encompasses fine art, architecture, software engineering and game design. For the past 4 years, Jochen has also been working with the Network Architecture Lab on various projects. Article: Paper Time-Machine.

Contributor. David Isaac Hecht is a native of Brooklyn, NY. He has an M.Arch from Columbia GSAPP and a BA in Cognitive Science from Vassar College. David previously worked at the intersection of politics, finance, and philanthropy in New Jersey. He has been a studio TA at GSAPP, a researcher for the Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture, a Project Manager at Nodus in the Rockaways. He is currently conducting research for SO-IL in Brooklyn. Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Gabu Heindl, architect, urbanist, researcher. Director of interdisciplinary studio GABU Heindl Architektur (Vienna). Studied in Vienna, Tokyo and Princeton. She has taught at TU Delft, TU Graz, a.o., current teaching at Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Chair-Woman of Non-profit NGO Austrian Society for Architecture-ÖGFA. Article: Learning from Schools.

Contributor. Juan Herreros is Chair Professor at ETSAM Madrid and Director of the Advanced Studios at Columbia University GSAPP. Established in Madrid, he operates as www.estudioherreros.com from where channels its triple professional, academic and theoretical activity. He has taught at the most prestigious schools in Europe and America and published numerous books and articles such as “Typological Corrections,” “Emerging Practices,” “Infrastructural Geography,” “Dialogue Architecture,” etc. His work has been awarded, published and exhibited nationally and internationally. His studio is currently developing projects in Spain, Norway, Colombia, Uruguay, Argentina, France and Morocco. Article: Efficiency as Design.

Contributor. Richard L. Hindle is an assistant professor of landscape architecture at UC Berkeley. His research focuses on role of technology in landscape architecture with an emphasis on material processes, innovation, and patents. His current work explores patent innovation across a range of scales, from facade details to rivers and coasts. Article: Patents, Agency, and Environment.

Contributor. Phu Hoang co-directs MODU as an architect with extensive national and international design experience. He is a recipient of the Architectural League Prize and the Core77 Design Award. Before starting his first solo practice in 2006, he served as a director at Bernard Tschumi Architects. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta and a Master of Architecture degree from Columbia University in New York. He is currently an Adjunct Assistant Professor teaching advanced design studios in the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University. Article: If The Dust Never Settles.

Contributor. Kyle Hovenkotter is a designer and strategist in New York City. Currently, he is working with nbbj to design experimental, future-flexible workplaces for the tech and healthcare industries. He is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Columbia University GSAPP and a Visiting Assistant Professor at Pratt Institute. His independent work focuses on the impacts of globalization on cities at their breaking points. He holds a Masters of Architecture from Columbia University, and a Bachelors of Arts from the University of Washington. Article: Choose Your Own Catastrophe.

Contributor. Eric Höweler, AIA, LEED AP is a architect and co-founder of Höweler+Yoon Architecture. A registered architect with 20 years of experience in practice, Höweler is also an Assistant Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He is the co-author with Meejin Yoon of Expanded Practice: Höweler + Yoon Architecture / MY Studio, published by Princeton Architectural Press in 2009 and author of Skyscraper: Vertical Now, published by Rizzoli/Universe Publishers in 2003. Article: Zero Tolerance.

Contributor. Höweler + Yoon is a internationally recognized architecture and design studio founded in 2005 by principals Eric Höweler and Meejin Yoon. Engaged in projects of all scales, the award-winning multidisciplinary practice operates in the space between architecture, art, and landscape. Engaged in academic, institutional, civic, and cultural projects, Höweler + Yoon is committed to both the practice-of and prospects-for architecture. From concept to construct, Höweler+Yoon is determined to realize the built idea and to test projects through the dynamic interaction between the construct and the larger public. Article: Zero Tolerance.

Contributor. Architect, educator and writer, Francesca Hughes teaches at The Architectural Association and The Bartlett School of Architecture in London. She is editor of The Architect: Reconstructing her Practice (MIT Press, 1996), Drawings that Count (AA publications, 2013) and most recently, author of The Architecture of Error: Matter, Measure and the Misadventures of Precision (MIT Press, 2014). The work of Hughes Meyer Studio, an art/architecture practice, has been published by AA Files, AR, ANY, Art Forum, Harvard Design Magazine, Routledge, Monacelli and Wiley. Article: Deleted.

Contributor. Anab Jain is a designer, filmmaker and co-founder of Superflux, a critically acclaimed design studio working in the realm of emerging technologies for business, cultural, and social purposes. Her work has won awards from Apple, UNESCO, ICSID and Innovate UK and been exhibited at MoMA, V&A and National Museum of China amongst others. Article: Owning the Sky.

Contributor. Andrés Jaque directs Andrés Jaque Architects and the Office for Political Innovation. The architecture office explores the potential of post-foundational politics and symmetrical approaches to the sociology of technology to rethink architectural practices. Jaque is currently Advanced Design Professor at Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation GSAPP Columbia University. Articles: An Interview on Interviews, Everyone an Expert: On making Peter Eisenman transparent. and Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Rodrigo Valenzuela Jerez received his Architecture degree and a Master of Fine Arts with a Major in Visual Arts from Universidad de Chile, and a Master in Advance Architectural Design from Columbia University. He has been awarded with a Fulbright Scholar grant, a Scholarship from CONICYT-Chile, and a Scholarship from FONDART-Chile. In 2005, he co-founded the Studio Murúa-Valenzuela. Article: An Interview on Interviews.

Contributor. David Joselit is Distinguished Professor in the Art History Department of CUNY Graduate Center and the author of Infinite Regress: Marcel Duchamp 1910-1941 (MIT Press, 1998), American Art Since 1945 and After Art, amongst other titles. Article: The Epistemology of Search.

Contributor. Lydia Kallipoliti is an architect, engineer and scholar holding a PhD from Princeton University and a SMArchS from MIT. She is an assistant professor at Syracuse University, and the founder of EcoRedux, an innovative online open–source resource and exhibition documenting the history of ecological experimentation. She is also the editor of an issue ofArchitectural Design magazine. Kallipoliti’s research focuses on the intersection of cybernetic and ecological theories. Article: Clouds Crystallizing.

Contributor. Keith Kaseman has lived in numerous places and cities including Phoenix, Los Angeles, Prague (CZ), New York, Alexandria (VA), and Philadelphia. He is a partner at KBAS (www.kbas-studio.com), co-founder of Faíscas (www.faiscas.org), and an Adjunct Associate Professor of Architecture at GSAPP. Keith currently lives in Knoxville, TN. Article: Sangue Bom.

Contributor. Matt Kenyon is a new media sculptor and an Associate Professor in the Stamps School of Art and Design at the University of Michigan. Kenyon’s work has been exhibited internationally and collected by institutions including the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Kenyon is a 2015 TED fellow, a Symbiotica fellow, and a Macdowell fellow. He was recently selected for Coolhunting’s CH25 a showcase of creators and innovators from a broad range of disciplines who are currently working to drive the world forward. www.swamp.nu. Article: Hacking Geodemography.

Contributor. Wolfgang Kessling is physicist and climate engineer based in Munich, Germany. He is principal of Transsolar and frequently lecturing on sustainable design. Wolfgang’s research and development work focuses on zero energy buildings and design for outdoor comfort in urban settings. In 2012 he was invited to give a TED talk on outdoor comfort at the opening ceremony of the first TEDx Summit in Doha, Qatar. Article: Cloud Theater.

Founding Editor. Janette Kim is an architectural designer, researcher and educator based in the San Francisco Bay Area. Janette is assistant professor of architecture and co-director of the Urban Works Agency at California College of the Arts, and principal of All of the Above. Edited Issues: 05 Conflicts of Interest, 03 Performance, 01 Test Subjects and 00 Cracker Jack.

Contributing Editor and Contributor. Isabelle Kirkham-Lewitt is a designer, writer and editor based in Brooklyn. She received a Master of Architecture degree from Columbia University GSAPP and a B.A. in Art History and Architectural Studies from Brown University. She is also a co-founder and co-editor of : (Colon) Publication. Edited Issues: 05 Conflicts of Interest, 04 Instruments of Service, 03 Performance, 02 The Search Engine, 01 Test Subjects and 00 Cracker Jack. Article: Under Electric Eyes.

Contributor. Stephan Kowal, Ph.D. candidate at Université de Montréal, works on the relationship between architecture and new forms of cartography focusing on the creation of Canada Geographic Information System. Article: Land of the Moving Mountain.

Contributor. Tat Lam has been the director of URBANUS Research Bureau (URB) since 2010, at URBANUS Architecture and Design Inc. based in Shenzhen, Beijing, and Hong Kong. In 2007, Dr. Lam was appointed research scholar at China Lab, a research group out of Columbia University GSAPP, where he has been collaborating with scholars on the research and publication of mega-block developments in China. He is currently an assistant professor teaching at the School of Architecture at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). Dr. Lam additionally leads independent research projects on rural urbanization issues as part of the grass-roots platform Shanzai City. Article: Organic Algorithm, Organic Urbanism.

Contributor. Nicole Lambrou currently teaches architecture design at the School of Architecture, Academy of Art University in San Francisco, where she also serves as the Assistant Graduate Director. Her research interest continues to question how technology influences our future planning and spatial strategies. Nicole Lambrou received an M.Arch. from Yale University. Article: Big Data, False Data, Smart Data, Dumb Data.

Contributor. Trevor Lamphier is an architectural designer in New York City working with Diller Scofidio + Renfro, contributing to both their art and architecture practices. His work co opts the familiar and redeploys it as an instrument of both design and critique. Previously he has worked as a Teaching Assistant at Columbia University GSAPP. He holds an Masters of Architecture from Columbia University, and a Bachelors of Design from the University of Florida. Article: Choose Your Own Catastrophe.

Contributor. Vittorio Lovato is an architectural designer and member of the Architecture Lobby. He is a graduate of the Yale School of Architecture, and in 2014, he was the William Wirt Winchester Fellow, completing research on sustainable business models for alternative architectural and humanitarian practice. Article: Follow The Money.

Guest Editor and Contributor. Jennifer W. Leung is co-founder and principal of LCD Studio based in Brooklyn, NY. She is a Critic at the Yale School of Architecture and an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Architecture at Columbia GSAPP. Ms. Leung was the 2006–2007 Architecture and Urban Studies Fellow at the Whitney Museum and a 2012 MacDowell Colony Fellow.  She received an M.Arch I from Princeton University and a B.S. from UCLA. Edited Issues: 04 Instruments of Service. Article: Screen Testing, Test Driving.

Contributor. Hod Lipson is a Columbia University Professor and co-author of the award winning bestseller “Fabricated: The New World of 3D printing”. He is a frequent speaker at high-profile venues such as TED and the National Academies, and speaks on the future of technologies such as 3D printing, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence. Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Simon McGown is a Designer at Morphosis Architects in New York, NY specializing in higher education typologies and facade systems. He graduated from Columbia University with a Master in Architecture and a received a Bachelor of Science in Architecture from Texas Tech University. He is an instructor at Pratt Institute. Article: Hypercapital.

Contributor. Diana Martinez was the 2014-15 instructor for ARPA, she is a Ph.D. candidate in architectural history and theory at Columbia GSAPP. She has practiced as an architect in San Francisco, Manila and New York. Her research focuses on the role concrete and other industrial materials played in processes of colonization. Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Dr. Forrest Meggers is an assistant professor at Princeton University jointly appointed between the School of Architecture and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment. He heads the CHAOS Lab and coordinates the PhD track in computation and energy. He has a PhD from the ETH Zurich Department of Architecture, an MS in environmental engineering, and a BSE in mechanical engineering. Article: By Default.

Contributor. Meredith Miller is an architect and co-founder of MILLIGRAM-office. She is an assistant professor at Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning, University of Michigan. Article: Bioplastics!

Contributor. Magdalena Miłosz is a Polish-Canadian writer and intern architect based in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario. She graduated with a Master of Architecture from the University of Waterloo in 2015 and was the winner of the 2015 C New Critics Competition. Her texts have previously appeared or are forthcoming in Canadian Architect, The Site Magazine, On Site review, C Magazine, Scapegoat, Breach, and Unmaking Things. She can be found online at www.magdalenamilosz.com. Article: From Instrument to Evidence.

Contributor. Leah Meisterlin is an urbanist, architect, and Assistant Professor at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation. Broadly, her work engages concurrent issues of spatial justice, informational ethics, and the effects of digital technologies on urban research. Articles: The City is Not a Lab: How (not) to experiment in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous world,, Forensic Methodology, and Research Ransoms.

Contributor. Elliott P. Montgomery uses speculative design methods to probe social and environmental implications of emerging technological scenarios. He currently teaches design strategies at Parsons, The New School for Design and has practiced as a design consultant for clients such as Autodesk, GE, LG, Honeywell, and the NYC Department of Education. His work has been exhibited at institutions around the world, including the Museum of Art and Design, the Shanghai Powerstation of Art, the Cite du Design International Biennale, and The Storefront for Art and Architecture. Montgomery is a former design research resident at the US Department of Energy’s ARPA-E, a Core77 Design Award Winner, and an Andrew Carnegie Scholar. Article: Five Ways to Fix an Energy Business.

Graphic Designer. MTWTF is a graphic design studio specializing in publications, environmental graphics and identity systems. MTWTF engages in collaborative projects with partners in other disciplines, such as architecture, industrial design, and urban planning. MTWTF was founded in 2008 and is located in Long Island City, New York.

Translator. Rachel Grace Newman is a Ph.D. candidate in International and Global History at Columbia University, focusing on transnational Mexican history. She has a master’s in regional studies from El Colegio de Jalisco and a B.A. in Latin American studies from Yale University. She also works as a Spanish–English translator. Article: Efficiency as Design.

Contributor. Christian Oberdorf is working as Climate Engineer and expert for integral design of innovative buildings at Transsolar Munich. He has been involved in award winning sustainable projects throughout the world including the cooled conservatories of Gardens by the Bay in Singapore, Frank O. Gerhy’s Headquarter for Novartis in Basle and the Visitor´s Center Klimahaus® 8° Ost in Bremen. Article: Cloud Theater.

Contributor. Kate Orff is the founder of SCAPE / LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE and is an Associate Professor of Architecture and Urban Design at Columbia GSAPP. Article: Lab Overboard!

Contributor. Lucia Jalón Oyarzun is an architect and March II by the ETSAM School of Architecture of Madrid. She coordinates there the Landscape Specialty Line at the MArch II in Advanced Architectural Projects (MPAA) while teaching at its Landscape LAB and #crimescapes workshop. Since 2013 she is editor-in-chief of displacements: an x’scape journal. Her research interests focuses on the relation between the political, the body and the spatial production of the common. Articles: The Minstrel’s Lab.

Contributor. Masha Panteleyeva is a PhD candidate in the History and Theory of Architecture Program at Princeton University and a visiting Assistant Professor at Pratt Institute and Cornell University. Her research has been supported by the Graham Foundation, Canadian Centre for Architecture, and Princeton University, and she is currently working on a documentary film on Soviet experimental architecture during the Thaw. Article: How to Not Squander People’s Money.

Contributor. Samantha Parsons is a co-founder of UnKoch My Campus. She provides university stakeholders with the support needed to investigate, expose, and launch strategic grassroots campaigns to address undue donor influence on their campuses. Her research interests include university policy development, institutional funding models, the role of the academy in a democratic society, and critical conflict resolution. Article: Research Ransoms.

Contributor. Nicholas Pajerski is from Nebraska and is currently an Environments Designer at IDEO in San Francisco. He holds a master’s of architecture from Princeton University. Article: Choreographing Contingency.

Contributor. Formed in 2011, pneumastudio is an experimental design practice that brings together the related fields of architecture and landscape architecture as a means of reconsidering the “built environment” in a time of environmental crisis and existential threat. pneumastudio has exhibited its work at the Design Museum in Barcelona and New York University’s Gallatin School of Individualized Study. Dwyre and Perry are fellows of The MacDowell Colony (2013) and co-editors of a special issue of PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art (MIT Press). Recent publications featuring the group’s work include Global Design (Prestel) and Bracket 2: Goes Soft (Actar). Dwyre is Visiting Associate Professor at Pratt Institute’s School of Architecture where she teaches undergraduate thesis and elective history/theory seminars. Perry is Assistant Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s School of Architecture where he is Head of Graduate Studies and director of the Geofutures post-professional program. Article: A Folly for the Anthropocene.

Contributor. Alessandra Ponte, Full Professor at the School Architecture of the Université de Montréal, has recently completed a book on extreme North-American landscapes, The House of Light and Entropy (Architectural Association, London, 2014). Article: Land of the Moving Mountain.

Contributor. Emmanuel Pratt is co-founder and executive director of the Sweet Water Foundation. Emmanuel’s professional and academic work has involved explorations and investigations in such topics as architecture, urbanization, race/identity, gentrification, and most recently transformative processes of community economic development through intersections of food security and sustainable design innovation. While most of his early work was anchored in the field of architecture, Emmanuel’s work has since explored the role of art and social praxis as a key component of urban design, urban farming, and sustainability with a particular concentration on the creation of a new paradigms for regenerative neighborhood development. Emmanuel was a Loeb Fellow in 2017, is the director of aquaponics at Chicago State University, and currently is a visiting lecturer at Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Michigan. Article: Harvesting Change.

Contributor. Mahadev Raman is a Director of Arup Group Limited, the Chairman of Arup Americas and an Arup Fellow. He is a mechanical engineer by profession and has been in practice for 35 years, providing engineering design leadership for multi-disciplinary teams on a wide variety of projects globally. He has particular expertise in the design of sustainable, high-performance and energy efficient buildings and has pioneered the use of sophisticated analytical techniques to improve the performance of low-energy designs. Article: Efficiency as Integration.

Contributor. An architect and engineer by training, Carlo Ratti is professor of the Practice of Urban Technologies at MIT, where he directs the SENSEable City Lab.  He is also a founder of the International design office Carlo Ratti Associati. Carlo’s work has been showcased in leading publications and exhibited globally, including the Venice Biennale and MoMA in New York. Wired Magazine featured him among “50 people who will change the world.” Article: Toward Smart Dust.

Contributor.Reimaging is an instrumental design collective founded by Gabriel Fries-Briggs, Brendan Shea and Nicholas Pajerski and exists as an expanded platform for collaboration. It fosters conversations about contemporary processes of making, particularly in light of our computational moment. The collective stakes a claim for fabrication as a form of construction and, simultaneously, a form of representation. The reimaging of representational protocols engages an expanded toolkit of design in contact with matter, as irreducible to procedural or linguistic description. Article: Choreographing Contingency.

Contributor. Quilian Riano is the founder and principal of DSGN AGNC, a collaborative design/research studio exploring political engagement through architecture, urbanism, art & activism. Quilian holds a Masters of Architecture from Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design and currently teaches design studios at Parsons, The New School for Design and Pratt Institute of Technology. Articles: Which Public? Conflict as catalyst. and Follow The Money.

Eric Wycoff Rogers is a writer, strategist, designer, and a PhD candidate in the History Department at the University of Cambridge. Eric’s research focuses on American history—specifically the history of social reform during the Progressive era, and the ways that reform organizations shaped everyday life, from municipal governments to urban layouts, the definition of home and domesticity, leisure, families, cultural constructions of sexuality/desire, financial infrastructures, and collectively-held aspirations. Article: The Professionalization of Interest.

Contributor. Avigail Sachs teaches architecture history and theory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. She is currently writing a book manuscript on the idea of “environmental design” in postwar American schools of architecture. She is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, MIT the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. Article: The Trouble with Certainty.

Contributor. Susanne Schindler is an architect and writer focused on the intersection of policy and design in housing. She is lead researcher of House Housing: An Untimely History of Architecture and Real Estate at Columbia’s Buell Center and teaches design at Columbia and Parsons. She is a PhD candidate at ETH Zurich. Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Faculty co-director of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Jeffrey T. Schnapp is Professor of Romance Languages & Literature and Comparative Literature, and also on the teaching faculty in the Department of Architecture at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design. He is the faculty director of metaLAB (at) Harvard. Before moving to Harvard in 2011, he occupied the Pierotti Chair of Italian Studies at Stanford, where he founded the Stanford Humanities Lab in 1999, a lab which he led and directed until his departure. Article: Knowledge Design.

Contributor. With over 20 years of experience, Craig Schwitter is a leader in the engineering design of complex buildings and large scale developments that include educational, performing arts, cultural, civic, stadia, transportation, and master planning projects. Craig founded the first North American office of BuroBuroHappold Engineers in 1999. Under Craig’s leadership, the North America region offices expanded to offer a full suite of engineering arts including: structural, MEP, geotechnical and façade engineering, lighting design, fire and life safety, sustainability consulting, and sustainable master planning services. Article: Efficiency as Productivity.

Contributor. Denise Scott Brown, an architect, planner, theorist, writer and educator taught at University of Pennsylvania, Berkeley, UCLA, Yale, and Harvard. As principal with Robert Venturi at Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, she led international architectural, urban planning, and campus projects. Her research including Learning from Las Vegas (1972; revised 1977, with Venturi and Steven Izenour) and Learning from Levittown (1970 with Venturi), is widely credited with redefining the subject matter and approach of architectural research. Article: Studio.

Contributor. Rafi Segal is an architect and Associate Professor of Architecture and Urbanism at MIT. His current work explores new models and designs for collective settlements and agro-urban towns. Article: An Architecture of Collective Living.

Contributor. Brendan Shea is from the desert. Article: Choreographing Contingency.

Contributor. Frédéric Schnee has a MSc in architecture from the RWTH Aachen University. Schnee is currently an assistant professor at the Institute for Architecture, Construction, and Theory at TH Cologne University. He has worked at BeL in Cologne, C-LAB at Columbia University, INABA Inc. in New York, and OBRA Architects in Beijing. www.fredericschnee.com. Article: Towards Dematerialization.

Contributor. Michael Sorkin is Principal of the Michael Sorkin Studio, President and founder of Terreform, Distinguished Professor of Architecture and Director of the Graduate Program in Urban Design at CCNY, and architecture critic for The Nation. In 2013, he won the National Design Award for “Design Mind.” Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Mathew Staudt is a designer specializing in computational techniques in design and fabrication. He works with artists and architects to realize custom digital workflows, design interfaces, and assembly systems. Mathew has been a member of several progressive studios including THEVERYMANY, MOS, Ogrydziak Prillinger Architects, and URBANUS Labs (URL). As a technical consultant, Mathew’s recent clients include Snohetta, AM Design, CW-ZW Design, Pliskin Architecture, and Studio SHAN SHAN SHENG. Article: Organic Algorithm, Organic Urbanism.

Contributor. Alejandro Stein is an architectural designer and researcher based in New York City. He holds a Master of Architecture degree from Columbia University GSAPP, where he was awarded a Lowenfish Memorial Prize and an ARPA Research Fellowship. His research project conducted under ARPA, entitled Domesticity in the Office Landscape, investigates the potentials of converting the post-war, commercial skyscraper type for residential occupancy. Article: Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. Sara Stevens is an architectural and urban historian. Her book, Developing Expertise: Architecture and Real Estate in Metropolitan America (Yale University Press, 2016) studies how American real estate developers and architects reshaped suburbs and downtowns through the mid-twentieth century. She is an assistant professor in the School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Article: Speculative.

Contributor. Jonathan Sun is an architect, designer, engineer, artist and writer. He is a doctoral student and researcher at MIT’s SENSEable City Lab in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning. He holds a M.Arch from Yale and a BASc in Engineering Science from the University of Toronto. His work investigates perception and experience across multiple disciplines, and has been featured on NPR and The Independent. Article: Toward Smart Dust.

Contributor. Dan Taeyoung operates at the intersection of space, community, and technology, with backgrounds in art history, computer science, and architecture. He is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at the Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation, and Research Associate at the Spatial Information Design Lab at Columbia GSAPP, where he teaches a critical/technological course on experimental design tools and investigates digital spaces of censorship. He is also co-producer at Prime Produce, a non-profit working to create an experimental altruistic incubator collective in Hell’s Kitchen.

Contributor. Jonathan Tate is principal of OJT, an architecture and urban design practice in New Orleans. The office pursues multi-scalar work through opportunistic development, research initiatives, and conventional client engagements. Tate and the practice have been recognized as part of the 2017 Emerging Voices by the Architectural League of New York. Article: Jumpstart Starter Homes.

Contributor. Filip Tejchman is assistant professor in the School of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. He is the founder of Untitled Office, a design practice that explores the intersection of building, culture, and thermodynamics. His writing has appeared in Volume, the Journal of Architectural Education, MUSEO, and the Praxis Journal of Writing + Building and his research has been awarded a Graham Foundation Grant. Tejchman has previously practiced at the offices of Diller Scofidio + Renfro and Joel Sanders Architects. Article: A New Normal.

Guest Editor. Troy Conrad Therrien is a partner in Therrien–Barley, a design and innovation consultancy, and a faculty member at the Columbia University GSAPP where he co-directs the Architecture Online Lab and directs The Energy Issue initiative. He holds an MA in architecture history and theory from the AA, an MArch from Columbia and a BASc. in computer engineering from the University of British Columbia. Edited Issue: 02 The Search Engine.

Contributor. Tim Tsang is a master of architecture candidate at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. He joined URBANUS Labs as a research assistant, where he worked on the development of the Parse-L model and the application of computational tools to real-world architectural problems. At GSAPP, his research focuses on the integration of computation with theory and practice. Prior to Columbia, Tim practiced in Hong Kong with a specialization in institutional projects. He received his bachelor of social science in architectural studies from the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Article: Organic Algorithm, Organic Urbanism.

Contributor. Yoshiharu Tsukamoto and his wife Momoyo Kajima started their activity as Atelier Bow-Wow in 1992. The Tokyo-based practice is renowned for their domestic and cultural architecture and theories, especially their work surrounding the concept of “Behaviorology.” The pair has published eleven books, including the Pet Architecture Guidebook. Tsukamoto is a professor in the Graduate School of Architecture and Building Engineering at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Article: Efficiency as Behavior.

Contributor. Neyran Turan is an assistant professor at Rice University School of Architecture, and a co-founder of NEMESTUDIO (www.nemestudio.com), a design collaborative based in Houston. Turan’s work draws on the relationship between geography and design to highlight their interaction for new trajectories within architecture and urbanism. She is founding chief-editor of the Harvard GSD journal New Geographies. Article: How Do Geographic Objects Perform?

Contributor. Els Verbakel is founding partner of Derman Verbakel Architecture and a professor at the Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning. Els obtained a PhD in Architecture at Princeton University, a Master of Science in Architecture and Urban Design from Columbia University and a Masters in Civil Engineering and Architecture from the University of Leuven. Article: Bit by Bit.

Contributor. Annabel Wharton, William B. Hamilton Professor of Art History, Duke University, and Vincent Scully Visiting Professor at the Yale School of Architecture in 2014, received her Ph.D. at the Courtauld Institute, London University. Initially her research focused on Late Ancient and Byzantine art and culture (Art of Empire [Penn State] and Refiguring the Post-Classical City [Cambridge]). Then she began to investigate the effects of modernity on ancient landscapes, notably in Building the Cold War: Hilton International Hotels and Modern Architecture (Chicago, 2001). She has combined her interests in the Ancient and the Modern in her last two books: Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks (Chicago, 2006) and Architectural Agents: The Delusional, Abusive, Addictive Lives of Buildings (Minnesota, 2015). Architectural Agents considers material and digital buildings as agents that both endure pain and inflict it. She has begun work on a new project treating the theory and practice of models, conceptual and material, analog and digital, tentatively titled Manipulating Models. Article: Scaffold, Model, Metaphor.

Contributor. Matthew Wisnioski is associate professor of STS at Virginia Tech; a fellow of the Institute for Creativity, Arts, and Technology; associate director of the Human Centered Design IGEP; and a 2014 fellow of the Smithsonian’s Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. The author of Engineers for Change (MIT 2012), he is working on his second book Everyone an Innovator funded by NSF Scholar’s Award 1354121. Article: Sandbox Infrastructure.

Contributor. Dong-Ping Wong is a founding partner of Family and co-founder of Friends of + POOL, the world’s first water-filtering floating pool for New York City and one of the largest crowd funded civic projects in the world. Dong is a frequent public speaker at international venues such as the Municipal Art Society Summit, Olso Design Council, AIGA Design Week, Core 77 Conference, PSFK Conference, TedX and the World Summit on Innovation. Before founding Family, Dong graduated from Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University with a Masters in Architecture and UC Berkeley with a Bachelors of Arts in Architecture. Dong has worked at OMA, Snohetta, EHDD and REX, where he met Oana. Article: Please Own a Piece of It.

Contributor. Mike Che-Wei Yeh is a designer and researcher of parametric design. He received his Master’s of Science degree in Advanced Architectural Design from the Columbia University GSAPP, where he received the Lowenfish Memorial Prize. Yeh also earned his Bachelor’s degree in Architecture from Tamkang University in Taiwan as a recipient of the Chi-Kun Wang Memorial Prize. Forensic Methodology.

Contributor. J. Meejin Yoon, AIA, FAAR (b. Seoul, Korea) is a Korean-American architect and designer. In 2014, Yoon was appointed as the first female Head of the Department of Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Yoon’s work has been widely recognized and has won international acclaim for its innovative and interdisciplinary nature. She is the author of Expanded Practice: Projects by Höweler + Yoon and MY Studio (Princeton Architectural Press 2009), and Public Works: Unsolicited Small Projects for the Big Dig (MAP Book Publishers 2008). Article: Zero Tolerance.

Contributor. Kari Zacharias is a PhD student in Virginia Tech’s Department of Science and Technology in Society and a graduate assistant at the Institute for Creativity, Arts, and Technology. Her research examines contemporary art-technology research institutes and their relationships to technical education. Article: Sandbox Infrastructure.

Contributor. Stephen Zacks is an internationally recognized architecture and urbanism journalist, theorist, and cultural producer based in Greenpoint, Brooklyn and a native of Flint, Michigan. He received an M.A. in Liberal Studies from the New School for Social Research, a B.A. in Interdisciplinary Humanities from Michigan State University, served as an editor at Metropolis, and has received awards from the Warhol Foundation, Creative Capital, ArtPlace, Graham Foundation, National Endowment for the Arts, MacDowell Colony, NY State Council on the Arts, and the Newtown Creek Fund. Article: Social Impact Criticism.

Contributor. David Zhai is a spatial designer with an interest in the future of architectural practice and pedagogy, and the way that that design can help transform the way we live, work, and play. David’s work often explores opportunities of crisis, and the hybridization of form to create new typologies of space. David is currently pursuing his interests as a Designer at Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG), and as an Associate in Architecture at Columbia University GSAPP where he is teaching in both the Core, and Advanced research studios. Article: Hypercapital.

Editorial Assistant. Fangying Zhu is a landscape designer based in Berkeley. Fangying received her landscape architecture degree from Hunan University, and a Master of Advanced Architectural Design from California College of the Arts in 2017. She is also the associate editor of CRIT Journal 2018 for The American Institute of Architecture Students (AIAS). Edited Issue: 05 Conflicts of Interest.